Therefore, the flow of refugees was directed not from East to West (as we are accustomed to), but from West to East.
The sooner the value of the leased property is repaid, for example, by paying an advance, the lower the interest will be accrued on the residual value of the leased property. Conversely, if the lessee postpones the payment of the first payments to a later date, the initial value of the property increases at the expense of accrued interest on the value of the leased property and the loan.
The amount, method, form and frequency of payments, as well as the method of determining the total amount of lease payments are set in the lease agreement by mutual agreement of the parties. The procedure for making lease payments is more flexible than under loan agreements (the lessee can calculate the receipt of their income and together with the lessor to develop a flexible payment scheme).
International relations: the German problem. Abstract
Principles of a peaceful settlement with Germany. Creation of Germany and the GDR. The Berlin crisis of 1959 – 1961. New eastern policy of Germany
The issue first arose at the second session of the Armed Forces ministers. It was first decided to solve the problem of the Allies, and only then to return to Germany. In April 1946, France, remembering World War I and World War II, proposed to include in the solution of the problem of Germany the way to its division into several states (in her opinion, this was the most effective way to ensure the security of France). The USSR at this time prepared a document "On the fate of Germany and the peace treaty with her."
The main idea of the Soviet project is the creation in the future of the German government, which would control the entire territory of Germany (ie it was about the unity of the state).
We remember that after World War II, Germany was divided into occupation zones (first 3 – Soviet, American, British, then from parts of the American and British appeared French zone) in December 1946, an agreement was signed between the governments of England. and the United States on the creation of the bison (ie, the unification of the American and British zones). It was emphasized that this is primarily an economic union. Why is that?
The fact is that after the establishment of the occupation regime there was a rather paradoxical situation. In theory, the economy in the American and British zones should be at a much higher level. But in the face of devastation, the rigid planning system that had been established in the Soviet zone worked better. Therefore, the USSR, having experience in rebuilding the state in particularly difficult postwar conditions, in about a year established an economic system in its area. There were cards, but problems with food were avoided. Therefore, the flow of refugees was directed not from East to West (as we are accustomed to), but from West to East.
But in addition to economic problems, there was the problem of creating a united Germany. Having resolved the issue with Germany’s former allies in February 1947, Hoover’s declaration was announced at the Moscow Conference of the Foreign Ministry in March 1947, where the idea of creating a separate German state was first voiced, ie it became clear to the United States that the idea of controlling the unified Germany the authority of the USSR was quite difficult, and so they decided it was better to take less, but still take.
The Soviet Union, inspired by the successes of the first postwar years, on the other hand, proposed a project entitled "On the Form and Scope of Germany’s Provisional Political Organization," and proposed the development of central administrative bodies. Remembering the experience in Japan, he proposed to the supervisory board to develop a temporary constitution of Germany. The United States backed down a bit and proposed the idea of creating a national council (a kind of interim government), but if the Soviet Union proposed to create this government on the basis of general elections, the United States proposed to create a national government of land governments.
At the same time, the idea of demilitarization was seriously discussed. And here the USSR had a very serious ally, such as France. The latter understood that the idea of dismembering Germany did not work, they wanted at least demilitarize Germany. She also talked about the Ruhr, about bringing it out of German rule.
There was another major US initiative, which was initially economic in nature, but played a crucial role in the creation of Germany. This is the "Marshall Plan". The United States, represented by Secretary of State Marshall, put forward the idea of economic aid to Europe, and this plan extended to Germany (and, initially, to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) 1984 ending summary.
But in addition to the purely economic side, the United States and Britain agree to establish a so-called Economic Council in their zones. This economic council was in fact endowed with parliamentary functions. In addition to the Economic Council, a project to establish an executive committee with government functions is being discussed. It is also planned to create 6 directorates, with the functions of line ministries. That is, in 1947, the administrations of the western occupation zones began to create the future state apparatus of Germany.
Given this course of events in December 1947 at the 5th Conference of the RMZ in London insists on its project to solve the German problem: the creation of a common German government, the future peace treaty must be signed by the German government, as was the case with Germany’s former allies.
A peace conference should be convened to discuss the peace treaty, and all this should be based on the decisions of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences. The USSR proposes to create central German departments for the main branches. But it was impossible to return the machine of realization of the ideas of the Western states, especially since these countries understood that in 1948, when the refugees had already moved back from East to West, the USSR would not go to the general German elections.
So the London session ended without results.
At this time, the powers of the Economic Council were expanding in the western lands (it actually became the lower house of parliament), a second chamber was created – the Land Council, an Administrative Council (actually a government), a supreme court, and a central bank called the Bank of Lands. West Germany is a state.
In February 1948, a meeting of the RMS was held in London (called "Separate London talks"), which was attended by the United States, Britain, France and the Benelux countries. It was decided to create a separate Germany, but to leave the occupation status, so that the USSR was not tempted to influence these processes in any way.
Realizing that it was very difficult to proclaim a West German state, they decided to do so gradually. The most visible means of introducing a new regime is money. In June 1948, a week before the introduction of the new currency (Zone A mark), the American and British governments warned the Soviet Union. The latter frantically begins to print currency for zone B, but he did not have time. West Germans are the first to come up with their own currency.
The introduction of the currency had already gotten out of Soviet control, but West Berlin, which was in the Soviet occupation zone, remained. Therefore, the USSR government subtly hinted that the introduction of currency in the western zones should not be rushed. But on June 26, this currency comes into circulation. In response, the Soviet Union blocked Berlin. The first Berlin crisis begins. No car, no train with any cargo to West Berlin, reaches its destination. Residents of West Berlin "hardened".
But the United States, having taken the first step, is taking the second – building a so-called "air bridge": everything was transported by planes, even coal. 5,000 tons of cargo (!) Were transported daily. The approximate cost of the cargo transferred to West Berlin in 7 months of the busiest shipments is $ 300 million. The USSR had high hopes for the weather. The ancients said that they had never seen such good weather in the fall for the last 40 years. In September 1948, after the creation of the trizone (in July 1948), Western countries brought the Berlin issue to a meeting of the Security Council. Before that, Stalin called on the ambassadors of the three states that as soon as the Western mark was lifted, the USSR would lift the blockade.
But despite the fact that the United States tried to fight to the end for its rights in West Berlin, the difference was a week. If the USSR had agreed to lift the blockade a week later, the United States would not have survived and closed the airlift.
In May 1949, a four-party communiqué was signed, proposing to convene a conference of the RMZS and resolve everything in the discussion. On May 23, 1949, the 6th session of the RMZS was convened in Paris. This was already agony on the part of the USSR. He proposes a new draft peace agreement, to resume the work of the Union Council. This was the last attempt of the USSR to show its unwillingness to dismember Germany. But in June 1949, the United States, Britain and France signed an agreement on the Supreme Allied Commission for West Germany.
On August 14, 1949, elections to the Bundestag were held. The CDU-CSU bloc won, and on September 20, 1949, the West German government began to perform its functions. The USSR had no choice but to approve the proclamation of the German Democratic Republic on October 7, 1949. As in the western zones, the Soviet Control Commission (instead of the Soviet Military Commission) was established. As they wrote at the time, "for the first time on German soil, a state of workers and peasants was created."
The division of Germany into two separate states became a fact, and this brought about changes in international relations in Europe. As early as 1950, German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer (Germany’s first chancellor), an ardent supporter of the idea of a united Germany, proposed elections throughout Germany. The leader of the GDR, Otto Grotevol, proposes to convene a constituent council, which will include representatives of both countries, and both Germany and the GDR have agreed to hold these elections under UN control. The USSR first supported this idea, and then came to its senses, because the population of Germany was twice the population of the GDR.
Germany is gradually joining Europe. The first step was the signing in April 1951 of the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community. But the idea of declaring Germany was an integral part of maintaining the occupation status. Therefore, in August 1950, the German government sent a memorandum to the governments of the United States, Britain and France on new principles of relations between the Federal Republic and the occupying powers. (there is no peace treaty yet). Germany offers:
the state of war ceases; the occupation remains, but the goal of the occupying forces is to ensure the security of Germany; it is necessary to sign a number of agreements that would regulate relations between Germany and Western countries.
A month later, a meeting of the Ministers of the Armed Forces of England, France and the United States was convened, who agreed with this proposal.