These examples show the huge impact of journalism on all aspects of society.
There was no government decision on this yet, but the war was sought by the General Staff, in agreement with which the publisher acted. The Russian government, having received this message from the newspaper, unaware of the forgery, in turn announced a general mobilization. War became inevitable.
A classic example of the use of the press in the election campaign is the publication in the 1920s, in the run-up to the British Parliament elections, of a letter from Comintern leader GV Zinoviev to assist Labor in preparing for an armed socialist revolution in London. The letter later turned out to be a forgery, but until it became clear, the Conservatives won the election.
The Second World War broke out not without the participation of journalism. In this respect, the story of the British newspaper is instructive "Time"… On September 7, 1937, her editorial was devoted to the problem of the Sudeten Germans, who allegedly suffered in a foreign country and sought to separate the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia and annex the region to Germany. The article should also contain the following words: "Perhaps the Czechoslovak government should consider […] transforming Czechoslovakia into a more homogeneous state by excluding foreign populations … " In the political world it was known that the newspaper "Times" is pro-government, and its editor, Jeffrey Dawson, is friends with the Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom. Thus, the publication of the article, which contained a subjective editorial judgment, was perceived as the official position of the state and interpreted in the spirit that Britain would not object to Germany’s annexation of the Czechoslovak Sudetenland. This happened soon after.
The idea that the effectiveness of modern journalism is zero due to the non-obligation to respond to its statements by the authorities is fundamentally erroneous and is refuted by the daily practice of OMI. As an example we will give the information campaign which was developed on the pages by the newspaper of the disabled organizations of Kharkiv and area "In the name of life" which is published in Russian and Ukrainian with a circulation of only 1 thousand copies.
On November 6, 1998, an article by journalist Vira Rozhenko was published here "Prosthetic" may be left without dentures" in which it was reported about the termination of state funding of the Kharkiv State Prosthetic and Orthopedic Enterprise, as a result of which 32 thousand disabled people in the region were left without vital support. The publication attracted the attention of deputies of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, who at the regular session submitted to the government a deputy request on the need to immediately resume funding for this enterprise. The newspaper reported about it in Melana’s correspondence" Drobot "The deputy asks the government" in the issue of January 1, 1999. And on August 23, 1999 in the note of OM Lukyanenko "Journalists and deputies won" the newspaper reported that the plant’s funding had been resumed and that it was once again serving the disabled with prosthetic and orthopedic devices. This was a consequence of the newspaper’s intervention in solving a socially important problem.
These examples show the huge impact of journalism on all aspects of society. This influence can be both positive, aimed at establishing humanistic ideals, resolving looming conflicts, ensuring the harmonious development of society, and negative, which leads to exacerbation of existing contradictions, increased destabilization and even the emergence of wars. The great importance of journalism in public life imposes the burden of daily moral responsibility on each member of this profession, obliges him to serve the truth, not individuals, to seek the truth, not the patronage of those in power, and always remember humanism as the most important principle of journalism.
If the concept of effectiveness tends more to the tactical characteristics of journalism, the concept of efficiency – to the strategic.
Efficiency is a form of effectiveness of journalism in its appeal to a mass audience, the implementation of journalism of its ideological, cultural, entertainment, epistemological, etc. functions; it is a measure of meeting the needs of the audience in the media. The concept of efficiency is more voluminous and broad than the concept of effectiveness. Effectiveness is associated primarily with the constant influence of the press on man and society. This is a result that cannot be measured by a decision adopted by a state institution, but which lies in the plane of the entire social consciousness and social practice and the assessment of which is possible in terms of the historical process.
At the heart of the term "efficiency" lie the word "effect"… These are related, but also significantly different concepts. "Effect" – is any consequence of the activities of the media in the process of consumption of messages by the audience; from this point of view, there may be a side or even unpredictable effect in the activities of OMI. "Efficiency" the same is a result that coincides with the intentions of the subject of activity, testifies to the achievement of consciously set goals in the process of creating and disseminating information.
Efficiency always involves goal setting and daily, constant and persistent movement towards achieving a certain goal. It is a measure, the degree of achievement of certain goals based on the use of greater or lesser costs (not only material but also spiritual, creative) means and resources.
From this point of view, the category of goal becomes the most important for journalism, because the possibility of achieving it depends on its correct definition and realistic assessment. The purpose in each specific situation determines the content, choice of forms and methods of influence on the person of this or that body of mass media.
The goal is the future level of public consciousness and the state of public opinion, which will ultimately determine the behavior of social groups, groups and individuals. Therefore, it is very important that the goals and objectives of journalism be carried out within the framework of universal values 123helpme.me, orientation to humanistic ideals, stemming from the desire to ensure the harmonious development of society.
Particularly effective are daily newspapers (electronic OMI programs), which do a tremendous job that is beyond the reach of fundamental magazines and books. Magazines and books are deprived of the possibility of systematic, daily influence that constitutes the power of the newspaper.
Reading the newspaper day after day, day after day, falling under its influence "point of view" getting acquainted with the application of this point of view to all spheres of human life, the newspaper reader, imperceptibly for himself, begins to assimilate the range of ideas preached by this printed organ. The newspaper influences slowly but steadily; she appears to the reader every day, bringing a whole bunch of fresh news, groups the messages according to her point of view, from this point of view sheds light on them and imperceptibly puts in the reader’s mind crumbs of her truth; tomorrow she is again taken for the same task. 1 has been going on for years.
The newspaper reader imperceptibly and not freely assimilates the views and theories developed by the newspaper, its author’s collective. And precisely because the newspaper promotes its ideas every day, on the example of a thousand and one cases from everyday life. The vast majority of modern educated people, extremely concerned with all sorts of things, support, promote and supplement their education solely by reading the newspapers from which they draw their knowledge, and often "your" views on the surrounding life. No downpour can wash away the stone, and a drop of water falling continuously stirs it. So is the newspaper: acting continuously, every day, it can gradually achieve what is unattainable for clumsy propaganda by a book and a magazine.
In the story of Fyodor Kryukov (1870-1920) "From the diary of teacher Vasyukhin" (1903) describes the main character’s reading of the press received during his absence during the holidays. "I’m at my school again, reading newspapers, which in my absence gathered a whole bunch. When you read, the thought of the loneliness of your existence does not come to mind. The close world seems to be moving apart. I feel in the company of people who, too, may not live happily, but cheerful, eloquent, smart, brave, who do not lay down their arms in the struggle of life. And the desire to work, to respond to their call, to shake their hands – overwhelms me every time, and I look more cheerfully and closely at the life around me, and broad, sometimes just fantastic plans arise in my head and do not let me sleep … "
This was the case at the beginning of the XX century. Later, similar functions were transferred to information and journalistic programs of radio and television, which are published not only daily, but also several times a day, having an even deeper impact on society than the daily newspaper.
When describing the audience to which any OMI appeals, the following should be kept in mind:
the audience is primary and secondary; primary audience – direct readers, listeners and viewers of a particular OMI; but they are especially interesting materials "broadcast" further to their relatives, friends, acquaintances, thus creating a much wider audience than the initial one, which is called secondary; it contains sources for expanding the influence of OMI on citizenship, for increasing its efficiency and effectiveness; they also distinguish between the real audience, ie the one that constantly turns to a given newspaper or magazine, listens to certain radio programs, watches one or another television channel; but along with this there is the concept of the estimated audience, ie the one for which this publication is intended and on the involvement of which the editorial office is constantly working.
The main sign of the effectiveness of print media is its circulation, and electronic media – the number of its listeners or viewers.
The effectiveness of OMI has two main areas of manifestation:
in the spiritual sphere, in the minds of large social groups and individuals, in their behavior and actions.
Accordingly, it is legitimate to speak of two types of effectiveness: spiritual and practical, as well as two groups of its criteria.
The criteria for spiritual effectiveness are
knowledge; moral activity; <i>belief.
With the help of journalism, readers will create an image of the world in their minds, learn about events in their homeland and abroad, form their historical consciousness, develop a reaction to modern political events. Among our fellow citizens there are a large number of people who, having completed their secondary and possibly higher education, continue to use only journalism to increase their knowledge.